PRESENT PERFECT AND P. PERFECT
- We normally use the Present perfect
when we are thinking about past events together with their present results.
I canít come to the party because I've broken my leg
(We could often change a simple
Present Perfect into a Present Simple with a similar meaning. ( My leg is
broken) . Mary has just had a baby. (Mary has a baby).
- Grammars say that the Present
perfect can't be used with expressions of definite time. That is, we have to
say : I have seen him
or I saw him yesterday
but not I have
seen him yesterday.
In fact, these structures are unusual but not impossible
Police have arrested
more than 800 people on Friday and Saturday.
- Recently, some British newspapers
have started using the Simple Past for smaller news announcements- probably to
save space. This is common practice in American English.
- Some grammars say that the Present
perfect canít be used with expressions referring to ďdefinite ďtime. This is
confusing because it is not used with finished time expressions but
very common with definite time expressions..
Iíve lived here for
exactly 3 years , seven months and two days.
between Simple Present Perfect and Simple past doesnít depend on finished
actions but it has a lot to do with finished time periods
The cat has
eaten your supper - finished action- Present
doesnít depend either on whether events are recent. But on whether we are
concerned about its present results.
The French Revolution has
influenced many radical movements in Europe since 1800 ( 200-year-old event)
Ann phoned five minutes ago. ( very
- We use the Present perfect in
sentences constructed with this/that/it is the
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND
- Both can be used to talk about
situations which started in the past and are still going on. But the
Present perfect continuous has an ďup to nowĒ focus. It is common for
situations that are just coming to an end or may change, or when we are
talking about how long a situation has lasted.
I have violin lessons every two
I have been having violin lessons
every 2 weeks but I Think Iíll make it every week from now on.
It has been raining since Xmas.
- Both can be used to talk about recent
actions that have present results. But there is an important difference: the
Present perfect Progressive focus on the action, situation itself, looking at
its continuous, extended activity (not necessarily finished) . The Present
perfect looks more at the ideas of completion and present result.
I must have a bath. Iíve
been gardening all morning (focus on a continuous activity)
Iíve planted a lot of
new roses (focus on result)
Iíve been reading a
book ( focus on a continuous activity)
Iīve read you
- We use the Present perfect
Progressive to talk about repeated actions and events but not if we say how
often they have happened
Iíve been playing tennis recently.
I've played 3 matches or
I've played three times this week.
- We often prefer the Present perfect
Progressive to talk about more temporary actions or situations; when we talk
about long Ėlasting or permanent situations we often prefer the Simple Present
That man has been standing in the
corner all day
For 900 years the castle has stood
on that hill
I havenít been working very well
He hasnít worked for years
Iíve been living in Sueís flat for
the last month.
My parents have lived in Pravia all